Cross-Sectional Studies

Typically, cross-sectional studies are conducted when:

  1. Generalizability is important.
  2. Theory being tested is new.
  3. Population is mobile or otherwise hard to contact.
  4. It is critical the data must be anonymous.

Panel Studies

Panel surveys are useful when:

  1. You are confident that the intervention will have some effect and the researcher is interested in the process of the effects.
  2. You need more exact information on who did what.
  3. You can use with smaller sample sizes because variance estimator is more efficient.

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Panel Data


Cross-sectional Data


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